By Jane H. Hill
In a single of the main thorough stories ever ready of a California language, Hill's grammar experiences the phonology, morphology, syntax and discourse gains of Cupe?o, a Uto-Aztecan (takic) language of California. Cupe?o indicates many strange typological good points, together with cut up ergativity, that require linguists to revise our figuring out of the improvement of the Uto-Aztecan family members of languages in historic and areal viewpoint.
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Additional info for A Grammar of Cupeno (University of California Publications in Linguistics)
Nangiwtam ‘warriors’ < nangi-we-t-m c. qeyuwtam ‘whales’ < qeyu-we-t-m ‘whale’ If a super-heavy syllable would result, the vowel is not lost. 32 (59) Phonology a. hunwetim ‘bears’ < hun-we-t-m, *hunwtim b. a$hwetim ‘eagles’ < a$h-we-t-m, *a$hwtim Examples with -qat ‘purposive nominalization/immediate future tense’ followed by plural also illustrate deletion. In (60a), the a of the suffix -qat has been lost, while in (60b), where a super-heavy syllable would result from deletion, it is retained.
Thus it is familiar to community members and is retained here. However, it is not necessary to write stress in every word, as was done in Hill and Nolasquez (1973). The majority of Cupeño words exhibit primary stress on the first syllable of the root. In the present volume stress is marked only on words that do not follow this pattern, for various reasons. First, stress is marked on the first syllable of the root of prefixed words. This usage obviates the necessity of writing a hyphen between prefix (or proclitic) and root.
As coda: a’chimal ‘pretty, nice’ Glottal stop in word-initial position is not written in the practical orthography. 3). The affricate, orthographic ch, is the same as the fricative [S] but with a homorganic stop onset, [tS] in IPA notation, though this notation fails to capture the fact that the onset is homorganic with [S] (Golla 2005). (11) /ch/ as onset: chamish ‘chokecherry’, Chexemin ‘the Pleiades’, chinga ‘if’, chunal ‘sandbur’ The affricate [tS] alternates with [S] (orthographic sh), the former appearing only as syllable onset, the latter only as coda.
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