By A. Durieux, J.-P. Simon
This ebook illustrates the key tendencies in utilized microbiology examine with instant or capability purposes. the variety of the chapters permits insurance of a giant box of purposes, corresponding to nutrients and well-being sectors, environmental know-how, and wonderful chemical productions. It contains particular learn papers and evaluation papers, and makes an attempt to supply a balanced assurance of assorted different types of micro-organisms, really yeast, fungi, and micro organism. It provides result of contemporary researches, that have fast software. viewers: The e-book is meant for examine staff in microbiology, in foodstuff fermentation, and in addition to researchers in metabolic engineering. additionally, this publication might be of curiosity to humans from the tutorial international and the biotechnological undefined.
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Additional resources for Applied Microbiology (Focus on Biotechnology)
It is much more rapid than the other methods and can be used directly on whole cells. The profile generated by specific amplification can distinguish most of the strains very easily. Like the mtDNA RFLP profiles and the karyotypes, the PCR patterns of the yeasts taken in lees are compared to those of the starter. They are identical if the starter has really taken part in the process. By PCR it is shown that 90 % of the population is derived from the starter when the profiles are identical. Usually the starter chosen is added as soon as possible to the grape must to inhibit and eliminate the indigenous yeasts.
The growth rate depends on the environmental conditions, the adaptation of the bacteria to the medium and on the yeast responsible for alcoholic fermentation ( Lonvaud-Funel et al, 1988). Like yeasts, the indigenous lactic acid bacteria originate from grapes and cellar equipment. In the beginning of winemaking up to eight to nine species are usually identified. However after a few days, a natural selection occurs in the fermenting must. At the end of alcoholic fermentation, the Oenococcus oeni species 38 STARTERS FOR THE WINE INDUSTRY is predominant or exclusive, so it is the species most adaptable to wine conditions (Lonvaud-Funel et al, 1991).
Hansen, Denmark) (Nielsen et al, 1996). ml-1 and it grows or survives until the complete transformation of malic acid (Figure 3). A few other preparations are now available. But it is clear that the production of malolactic starters is much more difficult than yeast starters for which the winemaker can chose amongst dozens of preparations. The other problem when using a malolactic starter is the time of inoculation. While there is no alternative for yeast starters, it has often been suggested that malolactic starters can be used before, during or after alcoholic fermentation.
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